PGP Startup Guide

- -----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE----- Xenon ([email protected]) has kindly posted an info sheet on getting MacPGP 2.3a up and running, encouraging somebody to come along and write the same thing for the PC version. Well, hell, here it is. Questions, comments, bitches, and e-mail about this kind of stuff in general are welcome at [email protected]. Our public key to verify the document can be found at the end of this document, and also on keyservers all over the damn place.================================================================================ PGP Startup Guide - DOS Version v1.0 (93/11/28) Out and About ================================================================================Contents========Section 1 - Intro<1.0> What the hell is this document?<1.1> What the hell is PGP?Section 2 - Obtaining It<2.1> BBSs<2.2> America Online<2.3> CompuServe<2.4> InterNet<2.5> Setting it upSection 3 - Using It<3.1> Generating a Key<3.2> Keys & keyrings<3.3> Keyservers<3.4> Signing<3.5> Encrypting<3.6> Other useful commandsSection 4 - Miscellaneous<4.1> Legal Issues<4.2> ViaCrypt<4.3> Version History<4.4> Everything Else================================================================================Section 1 - Intro<1.0> What the hell is this document? This document is an intro to PGP on MS-DOS machines. It's designed for a first-time user of PGP, and will get them through finding the program; getting the program; and, finally, using the program in a basic way. In other words, a good way to get more people using PGP.<1.1> What the hell is PGP? PGP is a cryptography system that allows you to send data to other people with what amounts to excellent security. The important point about PGP, though, is that you never have to meet the person you're sending encrypted information to. This might not make sense at first, but this capability is essential to the benefits PGP can provide. Traditional encryption techniques have one key. The two people meet first, and exchange this key; then, afterwards, one encrypts the data with the key, sends it to the other person, who uses the same key to decrypt it. Simple, eh? Well, PGP can do that, but it can also do something else, called public-key encryption. This means that you encrypt a document with somebody's "public key" - which is freely distributed - and *only they* will be able to decrypt it, with their corresponding private key. Nobody else can. Not even you, right after you've encrypted it with their public key. Some people may wonder why PGP is necessary. Some people probably don't care. However, the two of us work remote in a distributed environment - our modems are our connection to the office, and anytime we're sending sensitive data through any kind of network, we're risking somebody else grabbing a copy. With PGP, that's no longer an issue. Additionally, we're always sure that documents come from where they were supposed to, since it's impossible to forge the digital "signatures" that PGP creates. For example, nobody knows who the two of us really are - the anonymous server takes care of that. However, once you've got our public key, you'll know that anything verified by that key came from us - without ever meeting either of us. Thus, by coupling the anonymity of the InterNet and the authentication of PGP, we can be anonymous, yet readily - and reliably - identified. Cool, eh? The only potential problems with public-key systems is verifying the public keys you have; see below, as well as the PGP documentation, for help on this.Section 2 - Obtaining It<2.1> BBSs PGP is probably available on some local BBSs in your area. If your local BBS lacks it, here's some info from the PGP docs:================================================================================ The GRAPEVINE BBS in Little Rock Arkansas has set up a special account for people to download PGP for free. The SYSOP is Jim Wenzel, at [email protected]. The following phone numbers are applicable and should be dialed in the order presented (i.e., the first one is the highest speed line): (501) 753-6859, (501) 753-8121, (501) 791-0124. When asked to login use the following information: name: PGP USER ('PGP' is 1st name, 'USER' is 2nd name) password: PGP PGP is also widely available on Fidonet, a large informal network of PC-based bulletin board systems interconnected via modems. Check your local bulletin board systems. It is available on many foreign and domestic Fidonet BBS sites. In New Zealand, try this (supposedly free) dial-up BBS system: Kappa Crucis: +64 9 817-3714, -3725, -3324, -8424, -3094, -3393 Source and binary distributions of PGP are available from the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation library, which is open to the public. It has branches in Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. Contact Max Allen, at +1 416 205-6017 if you have questions. For information on PGP implementations on the Apple Macintosh, Commodore Amiga, or Atari ST, or any other questions about where to get PGP for any other platform, contact Hugh Miller at [email protected].================================================================================<2.2> America Online As of a few days ago, PGP is also available on America Online. If you have any specific information on where PGP is available on AOL, please send it to us; we'll include it in a future version of this document.<2.3> CompuServe Officially, it's not available on CompuServe, but try GO IBMFF and use the File Finder on the keyword PGP; usually some forum still has it sitting around, despite CIS's management trying their best to get rid of it.<2.4> InterNet If you're on the InterNet, the easiest way to dig up a copy of PGP is to ask an "archie" server for the location. Borrowing from Xenon's excellent directions, find yourself an InterNet account, and telnet over to Log in with a username of "archie", and at the prompt, type "prog". You'll get a list of sites and directories, a la:================================================================================Host ( updated 09:50 4 Nov 1993 Location: /pub/cypherpunks/pgp FILE -rw-r--r-- 320168 bytes 08:09 3 Jul 1993 pgp23a.zipHost ( updated 08:14 3 Nov 1993 Location: /pub/misc/pgp/2.3A FILE -rw-r--r-- 422851 bytes 10:58 19 Sep 1993 Close archie by typing "bye", then ftp to one of the above sites. Use "anonymous" for the user name, and your e-mail address as a password. Type "cd ", where is the directory listed in the archie listing for the site you're ftping to. Type "binary", which sets the binary mode on. Then type "get ", where is the filename listed by archie. Finally, type "bye" to get back to your email system. Get the file from your email system to your PC; this varies so much from site to site that you'll need somebody local to help.<2.5> Setting it up Once you've got it on your PC, unzip PGP into its own directory. You'll also need to set two environment variables for PGP to be happy. One, TZ, sets the time zone for the system; here are some examples from the PGP docs: For Amsterdam: SET TZ=MET-1DST For Arizona: SET TZ=MST7 (Arizona never uses daylight savings time) For Aukland: SET TZ=NZT-13 For Chicago: SET TZ=CST6CDT For Denver: SET TZ=MST7MDT For London: SET TZ=GMT0BST For Los Angeles: SET TZ=PST8PDT For Moscow: SET TZ=MSK-3MSD For New York: SET TZ=EST5EDT Then set PGPPATH to the location you've unzipped PGP into; for example: SET PGPPATH=C:\PGP READ THE DOCS! What follows from here is a good way to get started, but there are a number of issues raised in the documentation that *must* be known for safe and reliable operation!Section 3 - Using It<3.1> Generating a Key PGP works on the principle of "public-key" encryption. This means that every key has two parts: a secret part you keep close to your heart, and a public part you scatter to the winds. The two have some mysterious, mathematical relationship that Einstein couldn't understand, but for our purposes all that matters is that the public part can decrypt things encrypted by the secret part, and vice versa. Thus, the first step in using PGP is to generate your key. Type: PGP -kg Select a key length; the bigger, the more secure. Most people use 1024 bits, and it isn't that much slower. Following this, PGP will ask you for your user name. For example: Out and About |-----+-----| |----------+----------| | | | +----------+ Email Address, in <> brackets +-----------------------------+ User Name, plain text Please follow this pattern; since a lot of people are starting to use their PGP keyrings with their friend's PGP keys as their email directories, keeping things relatively constant is a Good Thing. It'll then ask you for a "pass phrase." This pass phrase is *very* important. What PGP does, to insure that your secret key is used only when authorized, is encrypt the secret key data with this "pass phrase," so that only if the pass phrase is known will the secret key work. As with most kinds of password, this should not be something easily guess. Differing from most passwords, though, is that this phrase can pretty much be any text you want, with long lengths encouraged. Use random characters interspersed with text, like hey1me$for*turkeys^clinton. Don't use famous quotations, or anything easily guessed, since this pass phrase is what keeps your secret key secure. The program will then want some number of random keystrokes. This probably sounds silly, but it's actually very important. Computers can generate pseudorandom numbers, but truly random numbers are impossible - computers are fancy calculators, and randomness comes hard. So, PGP wants some keystrokes - which it times - to derive some truly random numbers for generating the keys. Then it generates the key. Go have lunch while this is happening; it's probably the most boring interface yet come up with by any programmer, unless you enjoy periods and plus signs. A lot. Especially if you have a slow machine. Finally, PGP will beep, and you've got a public and a secret key, stored on, logically enough, a public and a secret keyring. Which, of course, brings us to keyrings. BUT WAIT!! Before you touch the next section, execute the following command: PGP -ks Where is some part of your user ID that you typed in above. You'll have to type in that damn pass phrase - you did remember it, didn't you? - and PGP will sign your key with your key. While this probably sounds redundant, it actually plays a very important part in assuring that your key remains unmolested. Nothing worse than molested keys ...<3.2> Keys & keyrings We mentioned keyrings above. Well, if you've got keys in real life, keyrings are a good place to put them. PGP keys aren't any different. PGP, by default, has two keyrings: public and secret. Since you've already generated a key pair, you've got one public and one secret key - the two matching parts of your key. These are stored on two keyrings; logically, there's a public one (stored in PUBRING.PGP), and a secret one (stored in SECRING.PGP). The public keyring also will eventually contain keys for your friends and such; the material on it is desiged for public distribution. The SECRING.PGP file, on the other hand, is *very* valuable. With that file and your pass phrase, anybody can sign documents with your "electronic" signature, and decrypt things sent to you. Don't let it out of your sight; while your pass phrase does protect the contents of the secret ring to a certain extent, keeping the file secure is just as important as keeping the pass phrase secret. Since public keys can be distributed freely, they can be obtained from keyservers (see below), among many other places. The PGP distribution includes one called KEYS.ASC, which includes the public keys of the authors of PGP. As a first exercise, let's add it to your public keyring with this command: PGP -ka KEYS.ASC PGP will ask if you want to certify any of the keys you've just added. Say "no"; certification means you know for sure that the key belongs to a user. If you later get keys from friends who hand them to you personally, you can say "yes" when you add their keys, telling PGP you know the keys really belong to who they claim to. To view the contents of your public keyring, use this: PGP -kv And wham! A list appears, one line for each key on your ring. You'll notice your key down at the bottom, along with a list of the authors. Each line starting with "pub" represents one distinct key; note that keys can have more than one name or email address attached to them. The anonymous key for the two of us can be found at the bottom of this document. You'll need it on your public keyring in order to verify this document in a later section. Save the chunk of text to a file, then tell PGP to add it with a similar command to what we used to add the authors' keys: PGP -ka Of course, you're not always going to be adding keys; you'll need to extract yours, as well as other people's when you sign them. To extract any public key from your keyring in the above format, use the command: PGP -kxa Where is some unique part of their name or email address. For example, to create a copy of your public key to pass around to your friends, type: PGP -kxa MYKEY.ASC Where is some part of the name or email address you used when creating the key. The file MYKEY.ASC - which will look very similar to our key above - can be easily put in email messages, text editors, posted on bulletin boards, everything. Distribute it far and wide; this will help prevent other people from trying to distribute fake public keys in your name.<3.3> Keyservers Keyservers are a muy bueno invention to spread public keys faster than the SR-71 used to fly. Basically, keyservers are a group of computers that maintain a massive (800+K, last I checked) public keyring with thousands of keys on it. You can query this server to get a specific person's public key, either to send something to them, or to verify one they've already sent to you. Here's some info, which shows regularly in Check there for the latest info:================================================================================Each keyserver processes requests in the form of mail messages. Thecommands for the server are entered on the Subject: line. To: [email protected] From: [email protected] Subject: helpSending your key to ONE server is enough. After it processes yourkey, it will forward your add request to other servers automagically.For example, to add your key to the keyserver, or to update your key if it isalready there, send a message similar to the following to any server: To: [email protected] From: [email protected] Subject: add -----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK----- Version: 2.2 -----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----COMPROMISED KEYS: Create a Key Revocation Certificate (read the PGPdocs on how to do that) and mail your key to the server once again,with the ADD command.Valid commands are:Command Message body contains- - ---------------------- -------------------------------------------------ADD Your PGP public key (key to add is body of msg)INDEX List all PGP keys the server knows about (-kv)VERBOSE INDEX List all PGP keys, verbose format (-kvv)GET Get the whole public key ring (split)GET userid Get just that one keyMGET regexp Get all keys which match /regexp/LAST days Get the keys updated in the last `days' days- - ------------------------------------------------------------------------Internet connected sites: [email protected] Derek Atkins [email protected] FTP: [email protected] John Perry [email protected] FTP: [email protected] Mark Turner [email protected] FTP:<3.4> Signing By signing a key, you're stating to the world that you know that the key in fact does belong to the name shown. The benefit of this is that, if you know the "introducer" - the person who's signed a public key you're going to use - can be trusted with handling keys, then you don't necessarily have to verify the key itself. While this can easily descend into a complex tangle of what exactly qualifies as "signing," for the purposes of this introduction, you sign a key like this: PGP -ks You'll be prompted for your pass phrase - we honestly hope you've remembered that thing damn well by now - and PGP will "sign" the key for you. Then, extract that person's public key - which will now include your signature - and send it to them. They can add it to their public keyring, and they'll suddenly gain the benefit of your signature. This means that if they're communicating with somebody who doesn't know them, but knows you, the third person can use your signature to verify the key's validity. If somebody else signs your key and sends it back to you, use the PGP -ka command (mentioned above) to add the amended key back onto your public keyring. PGP will recognize that just a signature has been added, and will append that to your keyring, meaning that the next time you extract your public key, that signature will go along with it. To see signatures on your keyring, use a modified version of the view command we used before: PGP -kvv<3.5> Encrypting Heh. And you thought all we were ever going to talk about was keys and crap, right? You'll be happy to know that PGP is pretty good at its primary mission in life - encryption. The most simple form is this: PGP -e Where is the file to encrypt, and is the target user who's going to decode it. This'll create another file called .pgp, which is the encrypted text. Send it off, and the other user will be able to decode it. When you receive an encrypted file back, simply type: PGP And PGP will figure out that it needs to decrypt the file, and do so. Now, you think you're set, because you've encrypted a file, right? Well, there's only one flaw in this grand strategy: while only one person in the world can decrypt that file, that person won't have any assurance of where the file came from. That's where digital signatures come into the picture. A digital signature irrevocably identifies whatever you're sending as having come from you. A very nice thing to have. Best of all, it's easy as sin to do. Just add one character to the command line you used above: PGP -es You'll be prompted for your pass phrase (getting good at typing that in yet?), and then PGP will first sign the document with your secret key - allowing it to be verified with your public key on the other end - and then encrypting it with the other person's public key, so only their secret key can decrypt it. You can also just sign a document; this allows the document's source to be verified, without any sort of encryption. A good example is what you're reading right now. Save it to a file, and type: PGP Where, of course, is the name of the file you saved this document to. It'll work for a few seconds, then say (hopefully) it's got a good signature from us. It'll then produce a non-signed version, which contains the original message text; if the signature was good, that text is the same as what we originally put out, and you know it came from us.<3.6> Other useful commands There are two other commands you should probably know. First, there's the Radix-64 switch, which tells PGP to produce files which can be emailed, UUEncoded-style, through mail networks. To do this, you just add an "a" to whatever you're sending, a la: BEFORE: PGP -es example.txt Mary AFTER: PGP -esa example.txt Mary The output will be sent to example.asc; furthermore, it'll be convienently split into chunks the mailers can handle, it the file is long enough. We used this switch already, above, for extracting keys, since the ASCII format, for something the size of keys, is far more versatile than a binary representation. Second, there's clearsigning; this means you add your signature, but leave the document readable, which was what we did for this document. To do this: PGP -sta +clearsig Which will produce a file called .asc, containing the document, with a signature at the end.Section 4 - Miscellaneous<4.1> Legal Issues Oh yeah - PGP is illegal, at least if you live in the US and Canada. Why? PGP makes use of the RSA public-key algorithm, developed at MIT with tax dollars. The US Government then allowed a company out in California to patent this algorithm; thus, if you're using this product in the US or Canada, you're likely violating that patent. See the next section on how to get around this. Also, if you know anything about the situation, please send us email on how we can get the goverment to use tax dollars to develop technology, then hand exclusive implementation rights to us. This would be a most excellent thing to have happen. If you're out of the US or Canada, using PGP is not a problem, since the patent laws don't apply; just *don't ask a friend in the US or Canada to send you a copy*. Thanks to the US Government's enlightened export restrictions, PGP is considered to be munitions, meaning that you could get sacked with serious shit if you either import or export it to/from the US and/or Canada, including posting over the InterNet, or any other international information service. That's why Phil Zimmerman's being investigated by the San Jose customs office right now. Yep, our tax dollars hard at work.<4.2> ViaCrypt However, all is not lost for US users. A company called ViaCrypt in Arizona is selling a properly licensed version of PGP which, for all practical purposes, is completely compatible with v2.3a. Here's a small blurb:================================================================================ViaCrypt, Inc., will begin shipping ViaCrypt PGP today, 1 November 1993.ViaCrypt PGP is a commercial public-key encryption package which isbased on, and virtually identical with, the freeware program known asPGP, or `Pretty Good Privacy.' (The source code is in fact identical tothat of the freeware version 2.3a of PGP, with the exception of the RSAencryption module, which is one ViaCrypt developed in-house afteracquiring a license for the algorithm from PKPartners. In addition,ViaCrypt incorporates a few bug fixes. The private-key crypto algorithmis IDEA, as in freeware PGP, for which ViaCrypt has obtained a licensefrom Ascom-Tech AG of Zurich.)================================================================================ Contact info: ViaCrypt 2104 W. Peoria Ave. Phoenix, AZ 85029 USA 602-944-0773 (Voice) 602-943-2601 (FAX) [email protected] (Netmail)<4.3> Version History 93/11/28 v1.0 Initial Version<4.4> Everything Else Please let us know if you find any problems with this document or have any questions about it; we can be reached at [email protected] as long as that anonymous server remains up. Let's hope it does, because otherwise you'll have one damn hell of a time finding us. If this document helps you, by all means pass it on to every person you know, and maybe a few you don't. Post it on lots of BBSs, all over the place, ad naseum. Tell everybody you know to start using PGP, because the more people use PGP, the less we all have to worry about a President Orwell.================================================================================ Contents Copyright (C) 1993 by Out and About. Assuming you could figure out who and where we are, that might mean something, but hey ...- -----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE-----Version: 2.3aiQCVAgUBLPgwgXv2tR+FRQuZAQFBvgP/c5VY0QBkZhOZhFGH1lfpCpfc/tT6FrNwdae81c049wNj4jORq1eodm2pn8ObgrmK6qb5CQS2CST27fBD1wtnGvyyisvfYtqayaYs2qBBEwkURZI7M6kjCdL1snaQ14ScfYLQiBH0jqle+uORsHeke429NG0fr6oazVlyOqFvMQs==Hl80- -----END PGP SIGNATURE-----Here's our key:- -----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----Version: 2.3amQCNAiztdHkAAAEEAL3VO4LItnVBwLGZi6Hux2MoWkpqDE4gZtSGu2NAgE6zaT+6B8NibIwCPxL+8qfeS36BqvZ3GbSOI0SJldUc9sXZeNHsB7RnLgUTmA9mLoaDeL7kIHXKpk2uc1CuzLawaY9WDflnntumfhD7p7JReoI7/PZPSzR813v2tR+FRQuZAAURtCVPdXQgYW5kIEFib3V0IDxhbjUwOTI4QGFub24ucGVuZXQuZmk+iQCVAgUQLO12SXv2tR+FRQuZAQELzgP9FADqM3zy7P8BxPFK7oIxlf8+e1TtYmM1aA+1zHeu0kp9Sxk5IgydAZmBCVihu78V+oaG+7+gTwqCc3MHJoEpmsrK+E6hsZYW1EWW4tUDisReuSICYLOdqaWOGzIdBXJX3NZEYyA4bv7dHd+VEESNQrDbQDqHD7+tLVwQtqZEQ5o==QQEg- -----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----